Holding Tutorial

Dear reader’s,

Pertanyaan lain yang seringkali ditanyakan pada forum-forum virtual aviation atau online flying network adalah :

  • Bagaimana cara perform holding pada salah satu fix yang telah ditentukan oleh ATC virtual & yang ada di chart?”

Saya rasa topic ini selalu menarik untuk didiskusikan. Mari kita bahas bersama. Pada dasarnya setiap bandara memiliki approach prosedure masing-masing. Kali ini saya ambil contoh WIII Soekarno Hatta Int’l airport. Let see : (ILS Approach runway 25R chart)











Due some reason, ATC menginstruksikan agar kita perform holding over ESALA.

Respond normal para virtual pilots biasa nya, buka FMC/ MCDU, set it up on the HOLD page, put ESALA on it and stay rilex. For me, thats good guys, but will better if you able to fly it without “the amazing FMC“. Maybe in real world we can 100% belief with this instrument, but in virtual, dengan segala keterbatasan flight simulator, think again. You will be shocked when it bring you to the middle of no where, not even close with the holding fix.

So how to perform it without FMC? Bingung? dont be!

First, get your pen and blank paper.

Ada beberapa hal yang perlu kita persiapkan, antara lain :

Determine the Holding Fix

Air Traffic Control (ATC) will give you instructions to “hold at ESALA intersection as published” or give you specific holding instructions such as “hold over ESALA inbound course 270, right turn.” The holding fix can be identified on an instrument flying chart and will usually be an intersection of Victor Airways (pre-established flying routes between VOR navigational aids), a VOR (Very high frequency OmniRange station), or an NDB (NonDirectional Beacon).

As we know, holding fix kali ini adalah ESALA, dimana posisi ESALA tersebut?

See the chart, ada pada R-090 DKI VOR DME17









R-090 : Radial 090 outbound dari DKI VOR
DKI VOR : VOR as guidence yang digunakan
DME 17 : 17 nm dari DKI

Visualize the Holding Course

This is the position in relation to the holding fix that ATC would like you to hold at guys. Which is clearly defined should be “over ESALA inbound course 270“. The holding course is the course to fly “to” the station. This will always be the reciprocal of the radial or bearing “from” the station (eg the 090° radial would result in a 270° Holding Course). Okay, take your time, imagine & visualize. Wrong interpretation, we will not flying on the correct pattern. Be advices gents.

Draw the Holding Pattern

Also, you will need to determine if it is Standard or Non-standard pattern. A standard pattern turns are to the right or clockwise, while non-standard turns are to the left. If the pattern is non-standard, it will be published on the chart as left turns or ATC will say “non-standard pattern” or “left turns. So in this case we will fly standard pattern.

Determine the correct Entry Procedure

Well, it will depend on where you flying from. Basicly kita mengenal ada beberapa macam jenis entry holding sebagai berikut :





  1. Parallel Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere within sector, turn to a heading to parallel the holding course outbound on the non-holding side for the appropriate time, turn in the direction of the holding pattern through more than 180 degrees, and return to the holding fix or intercept the holding course inbound.
  2. Teardrop/ Offset Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere in sector, turn outbound to a heading 30° from the holding course on the holding side for the appropriate time, then turn in the direction of the holding pattern to intercept the inbound holding course.
  3. Direct Entry Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere in sector, fly directly to the fix and turn to follow the holding pattern.

Let say we are flying from east, i.e Surabaya-Jakarta, comming down via Indramayu (IMU VOR) for Indramayu 2 arrival. Maka entry prosedur yang paling tepat adalah Teardrop entry, cross ESALA, fly outbound heading 090 & inbound course 270 to ESALA.

Time the legs

  1. Inbound Leg is one minute long if you are flying at or below 14,000ft Mean Sea Level (MSL) or one and a half minutes above 14,000ft MSL.
  2. When you are abeam the holding fix (or after rolling out of the turn if you are unable to determine abeam the fix), start timing the outbound leg. After a minute (1½ minutes above 14,000ft), make another 180° turn in the same direction to intercept the holding course.
  3. Time the inbound leg until reaching the holding fix. If there is little or no wind, it should be one or 1½ minutes as appropriate.

Always check your speed

  1. Maximum holding airspeed between the minimum holding altitude and 6000ft is 200 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS).
  2. Between 6001 and 14,000ft, don’t fly faster than 230 KIAS.
  3. Above 14,000ft, maximum airspeed is 265 KIAS.

That would be all gents!

Happy flying and remember this is only in virtual.

Resource : IVAO Academy

8 thoughts on “Holding Tutorial

  1. Nice tutorial mas, cuma ada yang saya mau tanyakan. entry ESALA dari IMU kenapa tidak menggunakan pola direct entry..?. maaf kalau pertanyaannya terlalu lugu…hehehehe.

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